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  • Mohd Azlan Razak

WHAT IS STEEL? (Part 1)



Steel, also known as ferrous materials, are base metals, including pig iron, ferroalloys, cast iron, cast steel, structural steel, tool steel, stainless steel, and heat-resistant steel, etc. They are all alloys composed of iron and carbon as the main elements and are the most widely used and most used metal materials in the industry.



According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel, encompassing unique physical, chemical, and environmental properties.



CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL

Types of steel can be classified according to the following method:


 Chemical composition,

 Use and application,

 Manufacturing processing forms,

 Smelting methods,

 Metallographic structure, etc.



DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEEL BY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

CARBON STEEL

Carbon steel refers to an iron-carbon alloy with a carbon content of less than 2% and containing a small amount of impurity elements such as silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, and oxygen. According to its carbon content, these types of steel can be divided into:



1. Low carbon steel, also known as iron or mild steel, has a carbon content of 0.04-0.25% (or 0.30%)

2. Medium carbon steel, with a carbon content of 0.25 (or 0.30) – 0.60%.

3. High carbon steel, carbon content is 0.60-1.25%.

4. Ultra-high carbon steel with a carbon content of 1.25-2.00%



Notes:

 Pure iron, the carbon content is ≤0.04%

 Pig iron: carbon content is ≥2.0%

… (to be continued)


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